I’m kind of sick of all the “tRCP vs GraphQL”, “tRPC will kill REST”, “REST and GraphQL are dead”, and other click baits.
With every new API solution, the previous one was supposed to be dead. REST is believed to be deep in the grave, killed by almighty GraphQL. SOAP was supposedly killed by REST. Yet, people are still using it. How’s that possible?
And guess what. RPC was said to be dead over thirty years ago. A whole long paper was written on how much RPC sucks. And now what? It’s suddenly the best thing that ever happened to web dev, and we should forget about everything else?
I hate that it seems that there can be a place for just one API solution at a time. Yes, there are cycles in technology, and some stuff is more hyped at a given time than others, but it’s not like all the other stuff is suddenly BAD.
Why is RPC popular now? Because other parts of technology evolved. Because full stack JS/TS applications became a thing thanks to Next, Remix, etc. And there was a need for something as simple as RPC (which was meant to be the simplest way of dealing with APIs). It is, in fact, a good solution for the monolith, full-stack apps with small teams that need to iterate fast. Will it be suitable for something else? Could be. Do you have to use it EVERYWHERE else just because it appeared to be awesome for your full-stack Next.js project and yell at people that GraphQL is long gone? Most likely, no.
Some of the problems that were a huge deal with RPC years ago are not necessarily relevant anymore. Some are, but many are fine in the context of full-stack typescript apps. Let’s look at some of them from the paper:
Client & Server being tightly coupled — look above — in the context of full stack TS apps. You already made the decision to make it tightly coupled.
Having to use the same language — oh shit, no, not TypeScript everywhere. Again: look above.
Need to learn all the procedure names — not a problem with TypeScript and auto-completion.
By the way, one of the reasons why REST was preferred over RPC is that it’s supposed to be easier to learn. Learning RPC API is like learning a programming library — you have to familiarise yourself with the method names, custom parameters and responses. In contrast, REST is supposed to be like learning a database schema. Well, not anymore.
Having to use multi-threaded servers — we have event loop, web workers. Browsers are multi-threaded. Again, not a problem.
Parameters marshalling — we’re navigating the same language, so not a problem either. Stuff like SuperJson helps otherwise.
Exception handling — it’s always a tough one, but tools like react-query can help with that.
As written in A note on distributed computing by Waldo et al.:
Distributed objects are different from local objects, and keeping that difference visible will keep the programmer from forgetting the difference and making mistakes.